Thursday, November 17, 2005

Banner System

Chinese  (Wade–Giles romanization) Ch'i-ping,  Pinyin  Qibing,   the military organization used by the Manchu tribes of Manchuria (now Northeast China) to conquer and control China in the 17th century. The Banner system was developed by the Manchu leader Nurhachi (1559–1626), who in 1601 organized his warriors into four companies of 300 men each. The companies were distinguished by banners of different colours—yellow, red, white, and blue. In 1615 four more

Saturday, October 15, 2005

Halftone Process

In printing, a technique of breaking up an image into a series of dots so as to reproduce the full tone range of a photograph or tone art work. Breaking up is usually done by a screen inserted over the plate being exposed. The screens are made with a varying number of lines per inch, depending on the application; for newspapers, the range is 50 to 85, and for magazines, 100 to 120. The highest

Thursday, July 28, 2005


Second day of the week (q.v.).

Tuesday, July 26, 2005

Bewick, Thomas

Bewick, a precocious youth, was apprenticed to a local metal engraver when he was 14 years old. He progressed rapidly and, after his apprenticeship, entered

Sunday, July 24, 2005

Ghezzi, Pier Leone

Ghezzi made religious paintings for Roman churches but was best known for penned and etched caricatures of Rome's residents and tourists. He often portrayed a single figure with exaggerated anatomy and appropriate eccentricities of clothing and posture. In group portraits he produced

Thursday, July 07, 2005


Religious philosophy with mystical concerns that can be traced to the ancient world but that has been of catalytic significance in religious thought in the 19th and 20th centuries. The term theosophy is derived from the Greek theos, “god,” and sophia, “wisdom,” and is generally translated as “divine wisdom.” All theosophical speculation has as its foundation the mystical

Tuesday, July 05, 2005


Latin  in full Flavius Arrianus   Greek historian and philosopher who was the author of a work describing the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Entitled Anabasis, presumably in order to recall Xenophon's work of that title, it describes Alexander's military exploits in seven books; an eighth, the Indica, tells of Indian customs and the voyage of Nearchus in the Persian